The Complete Book of Running for Women:
Everything You Need to Know about Training, Nutrition, Injury Prevention, Motivation, Racing and Much, Much More
by Claire Kowalchik
Chapter One: Running for the Body
Better to hunt in fields, for health unbought,
Those who say they haven't time for running are simply making excuses. The morning, before the family wakes or work begins, is free time for most of us. If not, how about during your lunch hour or after you come home from the office? Just 20 minutes. It might seem difficult at first -- even the slightest changes in routine can take some getting used to -- but before you know it, you'll be figuring out ways to find 30 minutes, 40 minutes...an hour for running.
Then there are others who say running is just too hard, too painful. They wrinkle up their noses at the mere thought of it. Running is hard, but that's one of the reasons we love it. We feel special as runners because we can endure. Besides, running gets easier. The reason many people say it's painful is because they go out for their first run and virtually sprint for as long as they can -- which isn't very long -- with their chest heaving, their tongues lolling, their muscles straining.
In the Nurses Health Study of 73,029 women aged 40 to 65, conducted by JoAnn E. Manson, M.D., of the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston, the rate of heart attack was found to be 44 percent lower among the most active women compared with those who were sedentary.
Running has several effects that lower your risk of cardiovascular disease:
prevents the stiffening of arteries that comes with age.
Williams also noted in his study that running lowered blood pressure and heart rate. Though the women who put in more weekly mileage showed the lowest figures for blood pressure and pulse, Williams found that fast running seemed to have an even greater effect, a good reason to do speed training and take up racing.
Given that running helps lower blood pressure and keeps the cardiovascular system healthy, it's not surprising that it can also help prevent stroke. A study conducted by researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and reported in the British Medical Journal (July 24, 1993) compared 125 men and women who had just had their first stroke with 198 men and women who had never had a stroke. In looking at the activity levels of these groups, the researchers concluded that vigorous exercise -- defined as running, swimming, cycling, and other strenuous activities -- "confers substantial protection against stroke. These effects were seen in both sexes and all age groups." The Nurses Health Study also shows that exercise prevents stroke, finding that active women have a 42 percent lower rate of stroke than do sedentary women.
For several years, health experts have suspected that physical activity may lower the risk of breast cancer, and recently a significant study reported in the New England Journal of Medicine supports this theory. Over a 13-year period, researchers in Norway studied 25,624 women aged 20 to 54. They group these women according to level of activity: sedentary, moderate exercisers ("those who spent at least four hours a week walking, bicycling or engaging in other types of physical activity"), and regular exercisers ("those who spent at least four hours a week exercising to keep fit and participating in recreational athletics" plus "those who engaged in regular, vigorous training or participated in competitive sports several times a week"). They found that the regular exercisers -- the most active group -- had a 37 percent lower risk of breast cancer compared with the sedentary group. The moderate exercisers showed a 7 percent lower risk.
When looking only at premenopausal women, the risks of breast cancer were even lower with physical exercise. "Our results support the idea that physical activity protects against breast cancer, particularly among premenopausal and younger postmenopausal women," the researchers concluded. The theory behind the protective effects of activity is that vigorous exercise, such as running, may suppress the secretion of estrogen and progesterone, which have been linked to breast cancer. Also, the lower levels of triglycerides seen in physically active women reduce the amount of estrogen in the bloodstream.
Most runners rarely get sick, and the reason is that running boosts the immune system. Researchers have determined this by measuring blood levels of lymphocytes (white blood cells that attack disease-causing antigens) and finding higher concentrations during and after exercise. It seems your body reacts to running as if a foreign invasion were occurring, and it recruits an army of lymphocytes to allay the onslaught. (During extremely long runs, however, especially those of high intensity -- such as the marathon -- so many lymphocytes are called into action that the reserves become depleted. Your immune system then becomes depressed, and you become more susceptible to illness. This is why runners often come down with a cold after a marathon. You can also wear down your immunity by running too many miles at too high an intensity in your regular training.)
Running also prevents that natural decline of immunity that occurs as we age. In 1993, David Nieman, Ph.D., and colleagues at Appalachian State University in Boone, North Carolina, compared the immune systems of active elderly women (who had been exercising aerobically for more than an hour a day for several years), sedentary elderly women, and sedentary young women aged 19 to 25. They found that the activity of T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells-two types of lymphocytes essential to immune function -- was significantly higher among the active elderly women than in the sedentary elderly group and comparable to that seen in the young women. "The T-cells of the elderly active women were functioning like those in women half their age," says Nieman. Other good news: a 1997 study of women, activity levels, and causes of death showed that those who were most active had a considerably lower risk of death from respiratory diseases than did sedentary women.
Running burns glucose (blood sugar) for energy, which helps prevent glucose levels from rising too high. This doesn't mean that diabetics don't still need insulin, but they may be able to use lower amounts. Running also improves circulation, which commonly deteriorates with diabetes.
When you run, your muscles require a quick delivery of oxygen. The more you run, the more efficient your respiratory system becomes and the easier breathing is. Though running can stimulate an asthma attack in runners who suffer from exercise-induced asthma, the fitter you become through running the less frequently you should experience such episodes. Some women have reported that running has enabled them to cut back on their use of asthma medications.
Scientists have no proof that exercise relieves the pains of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), but many women report that even though they may not feel like running when their period hits and they're bloated and suffering cramps, once they go for a run, they feel much better. If physical symptoms don't subside, the moodiness -- irritability or depression -- that some women experience may dissipate after a good run.
We now know that most women can continue running safely during pregnancy. Those who do gain less unnecessary weight, sleep better, have better appetites, and generally enjoy better moods than do women who are sedentary. Running may also help prevent gestational diabetes and may contribute to shorter or easier deliveries, although not all runners can attest to this.
When you've stepped beyond your childbearing years, you may find that running eases the discomforts of menopause by improving sleep patterns and stabilizing erratic moods that often accompany this period of changing hormones. It also helps control weight gain associated with this time of life.
Running Prevents Muscle and Bone Loss That Occur with Age
Running keeps the muscles of your legs in good shape as you age, but you'll need to do some regular weight training to maintain strength in your upper body. As for your bones, the forces that running exerts on your skeletal system stimulate bone formation and increase density. The effects are greatest in the legs, hips, and spine, the latter two areas being the most common sites of osteoporosis and fracture later in life. You can use resistance training (weight lifting) to build the bones of your upper body.
Running Is Good for Your Joints
Contrary to what most people believe, regular running does not ruin your joints; rather, it improves their flexibility and range of motion. "Running doesn't cause arthritis; injury does," says Warren Scott, M.D., chief of sports medicine at Kaiser Permanente Medical Center in Santa Clara, California. "Exercise is good for osteoarthritis. It speeds the rate at which cartilage is replaced by your body, making it stronger."
Running Helps Prevent a Decline in Reaction Time
Regular exercise has been shown to keep your mind sharp and reaction time quick. As you get older, quick reactions, good muscle tone, and overall flexibility help prevent accidents, such as falls.
Running Leads to a Long and Happy Life
That running can help you live longer and feel happier comes as no surprise, since running helps prevent heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, and osteoporosis and strengthens your immune system. In a study reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association (April 23/30, 1997), Lawrence Kushi, Sc.D., and his colleagues at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health looked at a group of 40,417 postmenopausal women between the ages of 55 and 69. They found that the most active women showed a 30 percent lower risk of death from all causes compared with those who were least active. Add to that the physical strength and emotional well-being that running gives us, and we can look forward to a vibrant and happy, long life.
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